Bridges can achieve interoperability and cross-chain capital flow, but committee-based bridges have been proven to be risky and often become targets of attacks. That’s why we need to rely on lightweight client bridges with zkp state verification. Cryptocurrency KOL zer0kon0wledge.rea provides a detailed introduction to the principles of TeleBlockingthy bridge and zkBridge, which are more secure.
TeleBlockingthy bridge is a unique decentralized communication protocol that does not involve a central trusted authority for relaying messages between Ethereum and various target chains. It uses a permissionless lightweight client smart contract design and integrates open-source zkSNARKs. This allows any participant to generate necessary proofs to update the lightweight client. The challenge with bridging is that the two chains do not share security, which means their validator sets and consensus mechanisms may vary and often do. Thus, verifying the state of the source chain on the target chain is equivalent to verifying the consensus of the source chain in the target chain’s execution environment, a principle that lightweight clients use to effectively manage blockchain state related to computation and storage.
Proofs like zkSNARKs are succinct by definition. This means the proof size is small and can be quickly verified. Therefore, zkp can compress large amounts of data into a small proof. Thus, using zkSNARKs allows users to generate proofs for computationally expensive operations in off-chain environments, which can then be cheaply verified on-chain due to their simplicity, currently allowing zk rollup teams to scale execution throughput. Outside the Ethereum ecosystem, it can also be used to scale consensus (or state) verification.
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Another example of a zkp-based bridging is zkBridge, which operates a highly optimized zkSNARKs scheme for block header relays, helping to achieve cryptographic security guarantees without any external trust assumptions such as PoS committees, significantly reducing on-chain verification costs. The validity of block headers on a remote chain is proven by zkSNARKs proofs, without any external trust. Thus, as long as the connected chains and the lightweight client protocol are secure and there is an honest relay, zkBridge is secure and effective.