Cross-chain bridges enable cross-chain interoperability and capital flow, but bridges based on committees have been proven to be a security risk and are often targeted for exploitation. Cryptographic researcher zer0kn0wledge.era introduced two cross-chain bridge solutions, TeleBlockingthy and zkBridge, that use zero-knowledge proofs to reduce on-chain verification costs without external trust assumptions and ensure system security.
TeleBlockingthy is a unique decentralized communication protocol that does not involve centralized trust institutions and forwards messages between Ethereum and various target chains. TeleBlockingthy has designed a permissionless lightweight client smart contract and incorporated an open-source zkSNARK circuit, which allows any participant to generate the necessary proof to update the lightweight client.
Using zkSNARK, users can generate computationally expensive operation proofs in an off-chain environment, and then, due to its concise nature, can verify them at a low cost on-chain. This concept of verifiable computation is currently allowing the ZK team to increase the execution throughput of the Ethereum ecosystem and can also be used to expand consensus (or state) verification. SuccinctLabs calls this “consensus proof,” which generates a validity proof of a chain’s state based on a chain’s consensus protocol using zero-knowledge proof.
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Another example of a zero-knowledge proof-based bridging is zkBridge, which operates a highly optimized zkSNARK scheme for block header relaying, helping to achieve cryptographic security guarantees without any external trust assumptions (such as central or PoS committees), thus significantly reducing on-chain verification costs.