Interpreting zkSync’s release of ZK Stack: L2 and L3 advancing side by side

Original author: zer0kn0wledge.era

Original source: Twitter

With zkSync announcing the launch of ZK Stack – a framework built on zkSync for scalable and composable L2 and L3 customization – we enter a new era of Ethereum scaling.

ZKStack is a modular, sovereign, and future-proof framework for building zero-knowledge (ZK) driven chains. It is built on five core principles:

  • Open source;

  • Modularity and composability;

  • Flexibility;

  • Proven security through battle testing;

  • Future-oriented.

Open source

ZKStack is developed under the MIT/ABlockingche open-source license and is free to use. This approach encourages community involvement and encourages developers to contribute and modify the framework to meet their unique needs.

Modularity and composability

The key feature of ZKStack is its modularity and composability. It aims to create Hyperchains, a new ZK-driven chain that can be seamlessly integrated into trustless networks, achieving ultra-low latency and shared liquidity.


One of the standout features of ZKStack is its flexibility. Developers can customize every aspect of the Hyperchain, from choosing the sequencer, defining data availability patterns, to shaping unique token economics.

Proven security through battle testing

Leveraging the battle-tested security of zkSync Era – the ZK rollup widely adopted on Ethereum today – ZKStack offers unparalleled reliability.


As Ethereum continues to tackle scaling challenges, ZK Rollups offer a promising solution. Building ZK-powered L2 and L3 with ZKStack has become incredibly easy. ZKStack is future-proof, helping developers unleash the potential of ZK.

The third layer (L3) is a Rollup built on top of L2, utilizing the recursive property (the ability to prove other proofs) of zkSync’s PLONK proof and settlement on L2 (verifying the proof).

This creates a recursive structure where the compression advantage of L2 proofs is multiplied by the compression advantage of L3 proofs. This allows for a multiple-fold cost reduction while maintaining L1 security.

ZKStack is built on the perfect combination of sovereignty and seamless connectivity. Developers have full control over the code and unrestricted autonomy to customize all aspects of Hyperchain.

As mentioned, Hyperchains built using ZKStack are self-contained and only draw their vitality and security from Ethereum L1.

Additionally, the Hyperbridge network facilitates connections between Hyperchains, ensuring fast, inexpensive interoperability and creating a seamlessly interoperable network.

The entry and exit processes between L1 and L2 are very expensive. This is different between L2 and L3, which can achieve cheaper and simpler L2-L3 interoperability. As independent L3s will collaborate with each other through cheap L2s instead of expensive L1s, L3-L3 interoperability is also very cheap.

zkSync Era overcomes the fragmentation of cross-network liquidity and, as a pioneer, Hyperchain leads this highly scalable unified liquidity network, setting an example for others.

However, while ZKStack is powerful, it is not a one-size-fits-all solution. For traditional DeFi dapps or NFT projects, deploying on an existing Hyperchain such as zkSync may be more efficient and provide synchronous combinations with other protocols.

However, developers may prefer to build their own Hyperchain on ZKStack in the following two cases:

  • When developers need to customize their chain;

  • When developers are accustomed to asynchronously connecting with a broader ecosystem.

But why build on ZKStack?

ZK technology unlocks capabilities that existing non-ZK solutions cannot achieve. While this enables novel use cases and provides superior user experience/performance, it takes courage to innovate and take an undiscovered path to utilize these features. Examples of some unique features include:

  • Abstract Accounts (AA) ensure superior UX;

  • Simplicity of ZK proofs enabling transaction types 1,000 times cheaper (like oracle updates);

  • Achieving ultra-low cost accounts with zkPorter.

In the coming months, how will the L3 scaling narrative develop? Can zkSync reclaim the lead with the introduction of zkStack? We’ll have to wait and see.

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