Rollups are a 2-layer scaling solution that can execute transactions off-chain and publish data on-chain. YQ, a developer at Raas service provider AltLayer, analyzed Classic Rollups (including Optimistic Rollups and ZK Rollups), Enshrined Rollups, and Sovereign Rollups, focusing on their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, as well as comparative studies among them.
Comparing Optimistic Rollups and ZK Rollups: Scalability: ZK Rollups provide higher scalability than Optimistic Rollups as they allow compressing multiple transactions into one proof through the use of zero-knowledge proofs; Determinism: ZK Rollups offer instant determinism while Optimistic Rollups have delays due to challenge periods; Compatibility: Optimistic Rollups are fully compatible with Ethereum smart contracts while ZK Rollups currently only support a limited set of operations; Complexity: both solutions are complex, but ZK Rollups are particularly complex due to the use of zero-knowledge proofs.
Enshrined Rollups: Pros: Scalability: By executing calculations off-chain and only publishing the results to the blockchain, Enshrined Rollups can significantly increase the number of transactions the blockchain can process per second; Security: Inherits the security properties of the layer 1 blockchain. Cons: Complexity: Enshrined Rollups add an additional layer of complexity to the blockchain system. This can make them harder to understand and implement, potentially slowing down adoption.
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Sovereign Rollups: Pros: Independence: Sovereign Rollups have their own consensus and can operate independently of the layer 1 blockchain; Flexibility: Can define their own transaction validation and settlement rules. Cons: Security: Sovereign Rollups do not inherit the security of the layer 1 blockchain as they handle their own settlements; Complexity: Implementation of Sovereign Rollups may be complex as it requires a separate consensus mechanism.