Technical interpretation of the Starknet upgrade: A user-friendly update that kills Pending

Starknet v0.12.0 has been launched on the mainnet, and the immediate user experience is that transaction speeds have been shortened from 10-20 minutes to several seconds. How has it improved scalability and transaction latency? What impact will it have on the future development of the Starknet ecosystem? Cryptography researcher Haotian takes you on a journey to explore the answers.

While Starknet is superior to zkSync in terms of ZK technology, zkSync outperforms Starknet in terms of mainnet interaction addresses, ecosystem vitality, and TVL data. The main reason is that Starknet has poor user experience in terms of account abstraction, pending status, and other user perception levels. Starknet v0.12.0 optimized the Cairo contract algorithm, rewrote the Sequencer, increased TPS, and crucially postponed the time accepted on L1, greatly reducing the time for transaction success.

Before the update, users had to wait for the transaction to be verified successfully on L1 before ending the pending status, which took about 20 minutes. Now, as long as a Stark declaration is generated on L2, the transaction will be assumed to be successful by default, and the time required is only 10 seconds. However, the corresponding accepted on L1 time has been added to more than 5 hours, mainly to ensure the network security of the layering deterministic mechanism and avoid the probability of L1 restructuring.

Starknet is a single-stage verification that only submits the final state to L1, not the initial submission state. So how to ensure consistency before and after the state change? This is actually a point where Stark proof is stronger than Snark proof. Stark proof can self-verify the submitted state based on the final state derivation. On the one hand, Starknet consumes more resources in terms of algorithms and computing resources. On the other hand, Starknet will stack more transactions on its Cairo contract, which poses a great challenge to its ZK circuit algorithm. This also explains why the accepted on L1 time will exceed 5 hours, mainly to give its ZK algorithm more fault-tolerant time.


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