Reflections One Month After EDCON 2023 in Montenegro: Insights into Infrastructure and Application Trends

Author: jessica shen

In 2013, Vitalik Buterin wrote the Ethereum white paper. Ten years later, the Ethereum developer conference EDCON (Community Ethereum Development Conference) was held in the capital of Montenegro, Podgorica. There was no grand celebration or formalism. What the author felt was that developers from around the world were working to solve the “impossible triangle” of blockchain, improving decentralization, privacy protection, and scalability in their respective areas of expertise, seeking collisions of views, resource exchange, and win-win cooperation in communication.

Although there were no new “wealth passwords” or innovative ideas proposed at the conference, which made it seem like a cliche of the Ethereum roadmap, the author deeply felt that the current AI revolution is gradually spreading its influence on blockchain. The annual EDCON is intended to allow ecological developers to once again clarify the direction of the Ethereum roadmap, review the progress of planned implementation, sort out the problems that need to be urgently solved, and discuss breakthroughs in technology “boundaries” in their respective fields, such as how to achieve better privacy protection and scalability, provide higher security and stability, how to create a better user experience (UX, User Experience) and user security (US, User Security) for the future explosion of applications. Participants exchanged innovative points of view and took a global perspective to understand the meaning of various technological and cultural changes for the future of Ethereum.

During the author’s time in Montenegro, he participated in the EDCON2023 conference and a series of side events, including the Community Day theme sharing of EDCON, Super Demo exhibition, World Supercomputer Summit 2023, DAO Montenegro Conference, and Antalpha Labs’ Account Abstraction HackerHouse event. During the limited time in Montenegro, there were still events that the author wanted to attend but could not, such as the ZK Community Breakfast and the Zuzalu event. To make up for these regrets, the author interviewed friends who attended these events to learn about their gains and feelings, and summarized their gains and those of their peers in this article to share with everyone.

Summary of gains

  • The EDCON2023 topics focused on how to break through the “Scalability Trilemma” of infrastructure in terms of privacy, scalability, and decentralization. The current stage is at the maturity of ZK, account abstraction, and L2 technologies. The progress of infrastructure provides a breeding ground for application innovation.
  • Zero-knowledge proof technology was widely discussed, including zkEVM, ZKML (Zero Knowledge Machine Learning), and the opportunity for ZK technology to be composable in various scenarios (Programmable Cryptography).
  • There was more discussion about on-chain gaming, account abstraction, and LSD, but innovation is still awaited at the application layer.
  • ZKML is on the verge of exploding, and AI may inject new vitality into blockchain under the empowerment of ZK technology, and the ZKML open-source community is worth looking forward to.
  • The account abstraction (Account Abstraction) track is “flat, hot, and crowded,” and capturing track value is a challenge.
Vitalik Buterin Gives Speech at EDCON2023 Source: UZMANCOIN.COM

Important Topics at EDCON2023

The main topics at EDCON2023 revolve around solving the blockchain trilemma of privacy, scalability, and decentralization. The scalability trilemma, which Vitalik Buterin proposed a few years ago, has actually provided a clear direction for the technical development of Ethereum. Throughout the past decade of Ethereum’s experiences, the infrastructure has continued to update and progress, and innovation in the application layer has also emerged continuously. However, we are still far from the ideal vision, and each area of the “impossible triangle” requires more breakthroughs.

The Scalability Trilemma Image Source:

The author has summarized their insights in the industry race and trends, which are divided into infrastructure and application layers. In the infrastructure field, the progress of Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKP) and Layer 2 (L2) networks has received the most attention from speakers and attendees and is one of the most discussed topics. The main topics in the DApp application development field are centered around On-Chain Gaming, Account Abstraction (AA), and LSD (Liquidity Staking Derivatives) tracks.

It is worth mentioning that in the ZKP field, the discussion direction at EDCON2023 and surrounding conferences has shown a trend of “ZK+” composability, with zero-knowledge proofs being used as a means of privacy protection and scalability in multiple areas on-chain and off-chain. Customized cryptography is usually used, but the need for more general-purpose “Programmable Cryptography” has been discussed multiple times. In the application field, developers are more concerned about user experience (UX) and user security (US). Account abstraction has become a prerequisite for application innovation discussion, which improves UX and accelerates the “Mass Adoption” of the blockchain, and is also a key point that infrastructure developers and application developers are striving to achieve together.

The development of things follows the law of “the spiral rise of infrastructure and application fields.” EDCON2023 reviewed the current development status of Ethereum’s ecology and trends in various fields. While developers are promoting infrastructure upgrades, they are also waiting for the moment of application explosion.

1. Infrastructure

At the infrastructure level, ZK technology, including zkEVM (Layer 2 expansion solution), ZKML (Zero Knowledge Machine Learning), and Programmable Cryptography, is undoubtedly a hot topic at this year’s Black Mountain and a series of surrounding activities. Vitalik Buterin’s presentation mentioned that “ZK-SNARKs are going to be as important as blockchains in the next 10 years” and has become an important focus.

Vitalik Buterin's speech at EDCON2023. Source:

1.1 zkEVM has no shortage of new players joining the competition, and the track will maintain high heat

In the first half of 2023, we have seen many zkEVM projects go live on the mainnet, including Polygon zkEVM, zkSync Era, and Starknet. In the second half of 2023 and 2024, the industry may witness many more zkEVM projects going live on the mainnet, including Scroll, Linea, Taiko, etc. Currently, these three projects are in the testnet stage and are collecting feedback from developers. All of the above zkEVM projects have high exposure and participation in this year’s EDCON2023 conference, and many emerging projects are among them. The developers of zkEVM are passionate about their careers and share recent progress and future goals with participants, expressing their expectations for technological progress and product updates. The benign competition in the industry is evident. In the next 1-2 years, we will see the second layer network of zkEVM continue to stand in the center of the Ethereum ecosystem.

Technical Lead Jordi Baylina of Polygon zkEVM shared the latest progress of the Polygon zkEVM project at the conference, including improvements to the PIL2 (Polynomial Identity Language 2) language, the implementation of a data compression scheme to solve data availability issues, and emphasis on Polygon zkEVM’s support for account abstraction through ERC-4337. He also shared his thoughts on the pattern of Layer 2 blockchain and ecosystem. The author noticed that Jordi talked about various data compression schemes used by Polygon zkEVM and the formal adoption of EIP-4844, which will further compress costs, and the combination of the two will greatly improve data availability on Polygon. In Jordi’s view, in the future, we will see more Layer 2 networks, and the composability between L2s in the Polygon ecosystem will be achieved through Proof Aggregation, which will help all Polygon ecological L2 chains to generate a single proof, increasing the composability between L2 chains in the Polygon system.

Kakarot, a zkEVM project built with Cairo language on Starknet, has attracted a lot of attention during and after the conference. The reason why it has caught people’s attention is that Vitalik Buterin is one of the investors, and other investors include Starknet co-founders and Starkware officials. At the EDCON2023 conference, Kakarot co-founder Elias Tazartes gave a public speech to showcase Kakarot’s business and vision, and Vitalik Buterin also mentioned the Kakarot project in his speech. The project’s highlight is that it provides an EVM environment for Cairo-based Starknet, allowing Solidity developers to deploy applications directly to Starknet through Kakarot without having to reprogram in Cairo language. In other words, Kakarot has created an EVM-compatible platform on Starknet. This way, many excellent EVM projects can be quickly deployed to Starknet, and developers can save time and effort maintaining Cairo and Solidity code libraries. Kakarot sounds like it could become a Layer 3 on Starknet, but the team will first focus on the Rollup-as-a-Service service scheduled for Q4 2023. In an interview with Blockbeats, Elias said that the competition in the Layer 2 track will become more intense in the future. As a zkEVM platform, Kakarot will actively collaborate with Starknet, Polygon, Linea, and other platforms. Chinese Solidity and Cairo language developers are also welcome to use and join forces in this field.

1.2 Demand for Programmable Cryptography is once again being demonstrated

In addition to zkEVM, ZK technology is being used in more and more scenarios, and the demand for Programmable Cryptography is becoming increasingly apparent. Programmable Cryptography was officially proposed by 0xBlockingRC. With the emergence and updates of zk-SNARK and other cryptographic tools, more general-purpose cryptography can help more developers quickly implement application encryption (such as in digital identity, reputation, etc.) without having to learn and develop cryptographic privacy protection technologies from scratch. With more programmable cryptographic development tools, privacy encryption may be applied on a larger scale to blockchain applications and off-chain computing and models. In Jason Morton’s “What Is Unlocked by Practical Zero-Knowledge Proofs?” speech, he also mentioned that “ZKP is becoming more programmable”. At the ZK Blockingnel guest roundtable discussion on zero-knowledge proofs, Programmable Cryptography was also mentioned multiple times by Vitalik Buterin and other guests, who are very excited about this more general-purpose cryptography application.

Barry Whitehat's EDCON2023 speech source:

EDCON2023 ZK Blockingnel Roundtable Discussion source:

1.3 ZKML is in the early stages of development but has huge potential.

ZKML is the combination of zero-knowledge proofs (Zero Knowledge) and machine learning (Machine Learning). We all know that there are trust issues with machine learning models in many respects: information data of input and output, confidentiality or publicness of algorithms and model parameters, etc. When trust issues exist, there will be obstacles for ML models to be applied on a larger scale. For example, when using personal information of users as raw data for training, encryption of personal information is required. Model parameters are usually the core competitive advantage of development teams and need to be encrypted to maintain a competitive barrier. Zero-knowledge proof technology can provide proof for many things other than smart contracts, especially in the current situation where machine learning applications are becoming more and more common. ZKP can provide proof for an AI model with millions of parameters, thereby improving security and privacy protection and helping to solve various trust challenges of machine learning models. In addition, when the ML model is integrated into a chain application, ZK-SNARK can generate proofs, which can relieve the problem of computational power demand of ML and introduce AI into chain applications more efficiently. As artificial intelligence and machine learning further disrupt our lives this year, ZKML is becoming more and more familiar and recognized by people.

At EDCON2023 and many other blockchain conferences this year, we can feel that many blockchain developers have already joined the field of ZKML (readers who need to learn about this concept can check out WorldCoin’s article on ZKML. As early as the second half of 2022, WorldCoin and some teams in the ZKML field created the ZKML community and introduced the concept, advantages, and future prospects of ZKML to the public in multiple public occasions such as ETH Denver in 2023). At the first World Supercomputer Summit 2023 held in Montenegro, most of the speakers were doing business related to ZKML. Cathie So (@drCathieSo_eth), a core member of the PSE, introduced AIGC NFT EIP-7007 and depicted the innovative sparks that the combination of ZK and ML may generate for the audience, and further imagined how the future world supercomputer architecture will empower the implementation of ZKML. The PSE team is committed to better combining ZKP technology with the Ethereum ecosystem and actively participating in the research and projects of ZKML. In addition, Hyper Oracle (zkOracle project on Ethereum), Poseidon ZKP (ZK aggregation proof infrastructure), Modulus Labs (chain AI project development team), and WorldCoin’s DCBuilder are also keynote speakers at the first WSC conference. Among them, Modulus Labs, as a pioneer in the field of ZKML, has conducted many experiments in the application of ZKML, including DeFi’s Rockerfeller Bot (the first all-chain AI trading robot), GameFi’s Leela vs the World (the first all-chain AI game), and NFT projects. At EDCON2023, as a developer in the field of ZKML, Jason Morton shared that he had seen the FLOPS (Floating-point Operations Per Second) of ZKP increase rapidly in the past few years, but the number of proofs per chain transaction was still in the tens of thousands, and he predicted that a breakthrough would be achieved in the next three years. He imagined application scenarios of the combination of ZK and blockchain in the fields of chain games, supply chain, and payment transactions when the number of proofs per chain transaction further increased to the level of 100 million or even billions per second.

Many speakers mentioned that ZKML is still in the early stages of development. As one of the pioneers in the ZKML field, WorldCoin has recently formed the ZKML community, which has already attracted many developers and peers working in the field. As more and more products are led by AI and innovation comes from AI and ML updates, ZK can be used as a means of privacy protection and accelerated computing to further empower society driven by AI. Although this demand is not yet very clear at present, if we have already foreseen a world where AI is omnipresent, then model and information encryption, as well as improved computing speed, will be the rigid requirements of the future. There are more and more programming tools in the market that can help developers create ZK proofs for AI models without having to learn all the cryptographic skills about ZKP, which will open up a huge market for more ZKP DApps. The significance of blockchain to AI or ML will also be multi-level, and the blockchain itself can provide immutable and decentralized on-chain records. Cryptocurrencies themselves can also become a borderless currency system for the coexistence of AI and humans in the future.

[Note]: FLOPS, Floating-point Operations Per Second, is a measure of computer performance, specifically calculating the number of floating-point calculations that can be performed per second.

2. Application DApp

At the EDCON2023 conference, we heard more about the exchange and discussion of underlying technologies, and less about the discussion of DApp applications, with on-chain games, account abstraction, and LSD tracks being the main topics.

2.1 On-Chain Gaming presents AI trends

For applications, people are still very optimistic about on-chain gaming. When asked which on-chain application has potential, most of the zkEVM public chain projects answered on-chain gaming. Danilo Kim shared his experience of life in Zuzalu at the conference, mentioning the on-chain AI game projects Zuland and Zuzuland that were born during Zuzalu. During Zuzalu and EDCON2023, the on-chain AI game Network State, based on AI and inspired by Slobbovia’s tabletop role-playing game TRPG, published by Small Brain Games, also attracted attention. On-Chain Gaming presents AI trends.

On-chain gaming has become a major topic of discussion for applications not because on-chain games already have traffic, but because the market lacks new narratives. After the DeFi summer, the horizontal competition between DEXs and vertical business expansion has made the head effect more and more obvious, but the head DeFi protocol has not created new hotspots for public chains. To lead the outbreak of traffic, we must not take the old road. The NFT boom happened on Ethereum, but even Ethereum’s NFT lacked innovative momentum during the bear market. NFTs that simply tell IP stories require a lot of operational energy and time, while NFTs with more GameFi elements and metaverse narratives require development time. NFTs with utility types and member types require many traditional enterprises to enter, and large-scale outbreaks also require early-stage user education and traditional brand’s long-term conception and operation of the technical team. The on-chain gaming track has gained more expectations naturally because there are more AI/ML elements added this year, and the flexibility and richness of on-chain games have increased. For example, ZKML brought Autonomous NPC or AI God roles, which brought some new inspirations to on-chain games, and ZK is also a hot topic. However, no matter which application track, leading the narrative to bring a lot of traffic in the bear market faces more challenges. Therefore, when discussing applications, the answer is expectation, but there is no very clear direction.

2.2 Account Abstraction Competition is fierce, and capturing the value of the track is a challenge

The concept of account abstraction (AA) has been around since shortly after the birth of Ethereum. In recent years, the progress at the protocol standard level, especially the formal deployment of ERC-4337 in March 2023, has once again attracted attention from the industry, and the enthusiasm for entrepreneurship and investment has soared. However, the current situation is that the account abstraction track is already quite “crowded” and the competition is fierce. Track participants face challenges in capturing value and business models.

During EDCON2023, Antalpha Labs held a HackerHouse event around the theme of account abstraction, inviting many developers, investors, and researchers in the account abstraction field to share their views and interact on-site, including ComBlockingss DAO, Candide Wallet, Account Labs (UniBlockingss and Keystone merged), and L2 Mantle Network, ComBlockingss DAO, Mirana Ventures research team that supports account abstraction. During the one-week HackerHouse event, the author participated in the on-site listening to the guests’ sharing many times, and gained a lot, which gave a deeper understanding of the current development status of the track. Thank you also to Antalpha Labs for holding the HackerHouse event and opening it to the public, allowing participants to learn from each other in a relaxed communication environment.

Account Abstraction HackerHouse by Antalpha Labs Source:

Currently, many wallet projects, underlying public chains, and emerging startup teams are working hard to implement and land account abstraction-related businesses. During the black mountain period, I participated in the Community Day event of EDCON2023 and the Account Abstraction HackerHouse hosted by Antalpha Labs. After listening to the sharing of various account abstraction track projects, I felt that the account abstraction track was “flat, hot, and crowded.” “Flat” is that the technical level and functional differentiation of the account abstraction SDK and wallet projects are not much different, and there is no obvious leading team or product in the track; “hot” is that investors and entrepreneurs have been enthusiastic about account abstraction wallet projects in recent years. The atmosphere of various conferences and peripheral activities can feel that account abstraction is the trend, and more and more smart contracts will naturally use the AA SDK for development, and the built-in wallet comes with support for account abstraction. The public chain level will also tend to directly support account abstraction (such as Starknet, zkSync, etc.); “crowded” is that there are many participants in the track, which also makes the competition in the track extremely fierce.

SevenX's project information on account abstraction track Source:

Many wallet teams in the track have developed excellent products, and there is no project that is difficult to catch up with in terms of technology and development progress. The competitors in the industry are almost “evenly matched”. In terms of SDK for account abstraction, multiple SDK providers have already provided solutions, such as Gnosis Safe, Biconomy, Alchemy, Web3Auth, Etherspot and other teams. In recent years, almost all wallet projects that have emerged will be developed based on the ERC-4337 protocol, and they will pay more attention to the B2B2C business model, as well as the experience of B-side application developers and C-side users. In terms of functionality, social recovery, anti-censorship, non-mnemonic, privacy protection, multi-chain and other functions are almost essential options. In addition to SDK providers, wallet projects have also made many attempts and efforts to explore more applications of account abstraction. The logic behind it is that when account abstraction is more widely applied and implemented in smart contracts, grasping the smart contracts (B-side) with a large flow of C-side can make the wallet itself realize value capture, which is also the reason why the wallet track in the B2B2C business model must vertically expand its business. In addition to creating scenarios, some wallet projects are also working hard to build infrastructure, including developing SDKs, etc., and working hard to acquire customers. However, in the value capture link, many SDKs are public goods, which are difficult to help SDK projects realize value capture. Wallet-as-a-Service charging by the number of times has led to difficult scalability, MEV income is also facing competition, and many head wallet projects are exploring more possibilities in the value capture link.

With the official deployment of ERC-4337, account abstraction has gradually been implemented in applications. Protocol implementation is an important aspect of improving on-chain UX and US, and it will be an important tool for bringing about mass adoption. Currently, the account abstraction track is fiercely competitive, and both SDK and scene application ends are exploring how to open up more users. The B2B2C business model for wallets is gradually forming, but effective means of capturing economic value in the industry chain are still being explored.

2.3 LSD is a long-term investment with certainty

If on-chain gaming is the application that Ethereum developers discuss the most in public, then LSD and LSD-Fi are the topics that the author hears people discussing more after the conference. There have been many discussions about “decentralized nodes” among the speakers, and how to strengthen the decentralization degree, stability, and security of POS are all technical points that developers continue to explore. In the process of communicating with participating investors, cryptocurrency funds have shown confidence in the LSD track. Perhaps during the bear market period, after many bubbles have faded away, the LSD track, which revolves around the POS mechanism, is a field with relatively higher certainty and stability. Readers can read Mint Ventures’ recent research report on the LSD track:

  • After the Shapella upgrade: Yield, competition, and the long-term impact of LSD-Fi
  • pSTAKE project overview: The waist project of LSD supported by Binance
  • The spring of the encrypted interest rate market is coming? In-depth analysis of LSD interest rate market service provider Pendle

Conference experience

1. ZKML is on the verge of an explosion, and more machine learning applications will adopt ZK encryption in the future

This year, we have seen more and more AI-driven products that have disrupted the way we used to live and work. Machine learning (ML), an important subset of AI, has been applied in many off-chain scenarios. The exploration of ML on the chain faces challenges such as computational cost and speed, model trust, and privacy protection. ZK encryption can enable the ML model to generate proof for the model off the chain, empower smart contracts on the chain, and make smart contracts more intelligent and flexible. When ML enters the application on the blockchain, the industry will have more imagination.

In recent years, ZK technology has matured in both software and hardware, and a series of computational issues, trust issues, and privacy protection issues that existed in past machine learning (ML) models can be solved using ZK. ZKML is also one of the areas that Sam Altman’s WorldCoin cryptocurrency project is working hard to promote and develop. WorldCoin, along with many research teams and projects in this field, has jointly established the ZKML community to research and promote ZKML technology and applications together.

SevenX's compilation of the ZKML ecosystem source:

Currently, some existing ZKML applications are still in the early stages of development, as mentioned earlier, including on-chain AI trading robots, on-chain AI games, and using off-chain ML models to make suggestions for DeFi protocol parameters. WorldCoin’s project under construction is similar to zk-DID, which uses ZKML to ensure the privacy of biological information and supports future upgradability of Iris Code. In the future, we can expect to see more machine learning models entering the blockchain field, and ZK technology will make this “future” arrive faster.

In addition, the author has excerpted a page of PPT from Daniel, the founder of Modulus Labs, at the WSC conference, “(ZKML’s application is) when AI is an excellent tool, and there are ‘trust’ difficulties.” I believe this is the underlying logic behind the combination of ZK technology and AL/ML. As the concepts of AI and ZKML become increasingly popular, we will see a variety of pseudo-ZKML projects, but grasping the underlying logic and significance of the combination of the two can prevent us from getting lost in hype and bubbles.

Modulus Labs's PPT sharing at the World Supercomputer Summit 2023 source:

2. Account Abstraction Track “Flat, Hot, and Crowded”

As mentioned earlier, through interviews and work exchanges at the EDCON2023 conference, I feel that the concept of account abstraction has gradually begun to be applied, and there are many participants in the track, and many wallet projects hope to lay out the entire industry chain in order to better connect the B2B2C business model, but the more profound challenge faced by the track is the establishment of a value capture system. As mentioned above, fierce competition will make the account abstraction SDK become a public good, and the B-end business of account abstraction in smart contracts is difficult to scale and fiercely competitive, while the C-end traffic of wallets is still controlled by application DApps, bringing value capture challenges to many account abstraction wallet projects. However, for users, Ethereum will continue to promote ERC-4337 to larger and deeper applications, bringing users a better UX and US. I believe that in the next cycle, account abstraction will no longer be a concept, but a seamless and wonderful experience in a large traffic application, worth looking forward to.

3. Public Goods have been repeatedly mentioned in the blockchain industry

During the peripheral activities of this year’s EDCON2023, Buidler DAO, SeeDAO, and Mask Network jointly hosted the DAO Black Mountain Conference, which included public goods among its discussion topics. Scott Moore, the founder of Gitcoin, also discussed Public Goods and emphasized the importance of “coordination” in helping blockchain protocols solve current social network problems. (Gitcoin, as an open-source project funding platform, aims to build and fund digital public goods.) When the author communicated with Shumo, the founder of Manta Network and Poseidon ZKP, during the conference, they also discussed the topic of public goods. “The endgame of blockchain infrastructure is public goods,” said Shumo. The author’s understanding is that blockchain infrastructure is similar to a “quasi-public good” like a road, with limited non-competitiveness and exclusivity, and should be used more widely by society as a tool to improve the financial system, lifestyle, and work efficiency. The infrastructure code in the industry is usually open-source, due to the open-source culture and atmosphere of the blockchain, as well as the spirit of equality and win-win brought about by the later Web3.0 concept. This makes it difficult for infrastructure projects to hoard resources, as new open-source projects will always bring free positive externalities to the industry.

When communicating with other attendees, the author could feel that many Ethereum developers had little utilitarianism in their original intentions, and their starting points were usually to solve a problem or pain point in the Ethereum ecosystem. The products or projects developed are usually open-source for everyone to use and improve. Most of the underlying infrastructure of blockchains is open-source public goods, which is also one of the reasons why the cryptocurrency and blockchain industry can iterate quickly.

Gitcoin Founder Scott Moore's speech at EDCON2023 from


Andy Guzman of the PSE Foundation mentioned in his speech “Harnessing ZK and Existing Infrastructure for Ethereum’s Mass Adoption” that the current stage is the maturity stage of ZK, account abstraction, and L2 technologies. The convergence of the three forces will enhance Ethereum’s User Experience (UX) and User Security (US). According to his description of the future, we can imagine that on a faster, safer, and more stable Layer 2, ZK encryption technology will empower AI/ML to bring more flexible DApp applications, while account abstraction will better help new users enter the cryptocurrency field, and users will have a more secure, convenient, and low-cost account experience and interaction experience. EDCON2023 brought together developers and colleagues from around the world to examine the current development progress and status of Ethereum, exchange the latest trends in the industry, and collide with ideas to generate innovative ideas.

Andy Guzman's speech at EDCON2023

Reference information source

  • EDCON 2023 speakers and themes announced, with V God, Balaji Srinivasan and other big names – Bit Finance
  • Overview of the hot trends and key projects of the Ethereum Black Mountain Conference
  • The DAO Montenegro event sponsored by Coinwin has ended perfectly around the Ethereum Black Mountain Conference
  • Vitalik Buterin: In the next 10 years, zk-SNARKs will be as important as blockchain – Foresight News
  • Why does Vitalik believe that zk-SNARK technology will be as important as blockchain in the next 10 years?
  • EDCON 2023: Summary of Vitalik Buterin’s speech and inventory of quality projects
  • Overview of the hot trends and key projects of the Ethereum Black Mountain Conference
  • 2023 Ethereum Community Developers Conference: Black Mountain aside, no “bright road”
  • DAO Black Mountain | Exploring Organizational Challenges Under Global Crisis with Vitalik
  • “No Chinese”: Arrogance and Prejudice in EDCON Black Mountain
  • Dialogue with Tsinghua Professor Hu Yilin: Philosophical speculation on transhumanism and Web3
  • EDCON Official Twitter
  • V God has uploaded a game he made in 2011 to IPFS; V God: Don’t overload Ethereum consensus, otherwise it will bring high risks to the ecosystem
  • ZKPs and “Programmable Cryptography” by gubsheep | Devcon Bogotá
  • Account abstraction HackerHouse by Antalpha Labs
  • Balancing the Power of AI/ML: The Role of ZK and Blockchain by SevenX
  • De University of Ethereum YouTube Channel
  • Revolution of the Ethereum wallet: Account abstraction and the opportunities and challenges of ERC-4337 – Foresight News
  • Will zkML be a new direction in the zk track?
  • Privacy and Scaling Exploration
  • May 18, 2023 – ERC-7007: a zkML case study @ World Supercomputer Summit
  • Hyper Oracle’s speech at the World Supercomputer Summit
  • Shumo Chu/Poseidon ZKP’s speech at the World Supercomputer Summit
  • Daniel/Modulus Labs’ speech at the World Supercomputer Summit
  • Network States Twitter about on-chain games
  • Understanding Zero Knowledge Machine Learning (ZKML) in one article: what kind of spark will ZK and AI collide?


Thanks to our industry peers who participated in the interview, including Derek from BTX Capital (@begas_btxcap), Jack from Blockbeats (@jack_xiong137), 0xMinion from GBV Capital (@0xminion), Ray from CypherBabel Index (@CryptoGOOO), Suede from Hyper Oracle (@hyperoracle), Shumo from Poseidon ZKP (@shumochu), Tommy from Beosin (@TommyDeng_DAO), Hank from Bixin Ventures (@0xHankester), and Qi Zhou from EthStorage (@qc_qizhou). Special thanks to Maxlion (@Real_Maxlion), Wang Ye (@snapp_yebit), and Gigi (@realgigiyip) for helping proofread information and providing ideas!

Like what you're reading? Subscribe to our top stories.

We will continue to update Gambling Chain; if you have any questions or suggestions, please contact us!

Follow us on Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and TikTok.


Was this article helpful?

93 out of 132 found this helpful

Gambling Chain Logo
Digital Asset Investment
Real world, Metaverse and Network.
Build Daos that bring Decentralized finance to more and more persons Who love Web3.
Website and other Media Daos

Products used

GC Wallet

Send targeted currencies to the right people at the right time.