Considering scalability, Polygon sees the potential of ZK in bringing the next billion users into the blockchain space and has invested $1 billion to build ZK solutions. Venture analyst cookies has written an analysis comparing Polygon’s different ZK solutions, namely Polygon Hermez, Polygon Zero, Polygon Miden, and Polygon Nightfall.
1) Polygon Hermez: Hermez is the first decentralized ZK Rollup on the Ethereum mainnet, providing payment services since March 2021. Polygon Hermez focuses on building a ZK implementation of EVM through a ZK-SNARK-based architecture. By constructing a zkEVM, Polygon Hermez simulates EVM operation codes and integrates Ethereum’s security, making it easy to adopt. In terms of performance, Polygon Hermez based on ZK-SNARK architecture can provide up to 2000 TPS and keep costs below 300,000 Gas.
2) Polygon Zero: Implemented by combining the advantages of STARKs (fast proof and no trusted setup) and SNARKs (recursion and low verification cost). As Plonky2 works natively on Ethereum and supports Solidity code translation to ZK bytecode, Polygon Zero can leverage the existing Ethereum dApp ecosystem.
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3) Polygon Miden: Based on STARK Rollup, with features like transparency, scalability, streamlined cryptography, and high performance. Supporting arbitrary programs with Miden VM at its core, one of Miden’s main pillars is security, and Miden is compatible with Ethereum at the Solidity level, allowing developers to deploy most Solidity smart contracts on Miden without modification.
4) Polygon Nightfall: Unlike other ZK solutions, Nightfall focuses on large-scale private transfers and payments, supporting ERC20, ERC721, and ERC1155 tokens. Nightfall is slower in performance, with a maximum of 105 TPS, but it is estimated that its transfer Gas costs can be reduced by 86%.