Interpreting the permissionless verification protocol Arbitrum BOLD

Author: terence.eth, Arbitrum developer; Translator: LianGuaixiaozou

In this article, I will summarize the live broadcast of the Arbitrum permissionless verification protocol BOLD by Ed Felten, co-founder of OffChain Labs, and Raul Jordan, co-founder of Prysmatic Labs, on the Bankless podcast, because it was really wonderful.

First of all, it is an exciting moment now that we can use Stylus, Orbit, and BOLD for L2 (especially Arbitrum) development. At the same time, Offchain Labs has made significant progress in L2 decentralization.

Arbitrum is already the most decentralized L2, and BOLD is the next step in decentralization, enabling fully permissionless verification. From a security perspective, anyone can force the chain to produce correct results, even if everyone else is malicious.

In the past, some criticized decentralization as a subjective term. L2beat provides a good perspective for objective measurement, such as different stages of decentralization. The pie chart risk map makes it easy to see which part of the L2 chain is more decentralized than others.

The live broadcast provides a comprehensive introduction to the pie chart.

– DA is represented in green because it uses Ethereum.

– Due to design decisions, proposer and sequencer failures are also green, for example, a sequencer cannot enforce invalid state transitions. It can only get ahead of you.

– Scalability is represented in yellow because of security concerns, but some may argue that since it is still in the early stages, it is a feature, not a bug.

– Finally, state verification is represented in yellow because the current set of verifiers is permissioned. If the DAO chooses to accept, BOLD state verification will be green.

The live broadcast provides a detailed introduction to the BOLD protocol. Raul gives his views on Ethereum scalability and explains why teams are transitioning from sidechains to L2, considering the ultimate goal of minimizing trust. In the end, what users want is a secure verification bridge to support activities on L2, and fraud proofs are key to achieving this goal. BOLD makes it more secure by addressing the issue of delayed attacks.

Before the release of BOLD: The gameplay style is to win the game by defeating all malicious opponents one by one.

After the release of BOLD: A large-scale battle scene where you have the superpower to defeat all malicious opponents at once.

To participate in the BOLD challenge, validators need to run the same node software as today. There are roles like proactive validators and defensive validators. The software automatically detects invalid state transitions and helps with correct settlement on-chain.

When a fork occurs, every honest validator will know that your fork is correct and use that fork. The fork will happen behind the scenes and eventually be resolved.

Finally, why would someone run it? First, if you are already running an L2 node, the cost is low. Second, if you run a dapp on L2, you may bear risks. The live broadcast also discusses sequencers and staking, which will not be covered here.

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